Emerging Automotive and Mobility Trends
The global automotive and mobility sector is experiencing a major transformation that is affecting the sector’s talent base and the future of work. These impacts have been further accelerated as a result of the global COVID-19 pandemic.
Through connectivity (with other vehicles, infrastructure, and road users), vehicles can be better aware of their surroundings. This brings a range of benefits including improved road safety, efficient traffic operations, better driving experiences and positive environmental impacts.
Connected vehicles (CVs) gather data from communicating with other vehicles, road users and city infrastructure. CVs use this information and transmit it to surrounding vehicles and transportation infrastructure to help make safer and more informed decisions.
Connectivity can be achieved through various communications technologies, such as dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) or cellular connections via 3G/4G LTE or next generation 5G, often referred to as C-V2X meaning cellular vehicle-to-everything.
Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are able to detect, recognize, anticipate, and respond to the movements of all surrounding transport system elements. This could lead to many benefits for mobility operations including improved safety, reduced cost of transportation, and enhanced access to mobility services.
AVs use intelligence from equipment on-board the vehicle to sense the surrounding environment without the need to communicate with a driver, other vehicles or surrounding transportation infrastructure. These include high-definition cameras, radar and LiDAR technologies.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) classifies that there are six different levels of automation, as shown in the diagram on the right.
Shared mobility services offer new and innovative solutions to mobility problems and challenge some of the traditional mobility offerings such as the private car, taxi and public transportation.
Shared mobility refers to transportation services and resources that are shared among users. This includes:
Micro-mobility refers to small and low-speed vehicles (primarily bikes and scooters) which can be either human powered or electric. They are typically used for personal transportation for short trips of around 1-5 kilometers.
Car-sharing services typically offer services through a network of cars available to registered members for short-term use. Users can borrow these cars for some time usually measured in hours. Car-sharing services are usually used for mid-to-long range trips (5 to 20+ kilometers).
Ride-hailing trips can be reserved Ride-hailing trips can be reserved and paid for via app, using passenger vehicles. The owner of the vehicle registers to offer a service through a secured and managed transportation network company (TNC) which provides a flexible and safer service. Examples of ride-hailing providers include Uber and Lyft.
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are either powered by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or through battery, solar panels, fuel cells or an electric generator*. EVs may use electric energy only (all-electric vehicles (AEVs)) or in combination with other types of fuel or power (plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs)).
EVs are increasingly becoming more efficient, delivering higher speeds and are more affordable. EVs bring a wide range of economic and environmental benefits including reduced fuel costs, fuel consumption, and tailpipe emissions.
*Source: Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Standards and Technologies for Controlling Emissions
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial intelligence (AI) is the foundation of autonomous vehicles and is commonly used so machines can perform tasks that humans perform. In autonomous driving, AI is necessary to replicate human senses and reaction to allow vehicles to be driverless.
Using Machine Learning (ML), a sub-class of AI, data is continuously collected from on-board sensors and communication technologies to develop models that perceive vehicle surroundings and make informed driving and control decisions accordingly.
Lean manufacturing is a systematic production method focusing on minimising waste without compromising productivity. With the growing interest in Industry 4.0 practices, more manufacturers are using lean manufacturing principles to eliminate waste, optimise processes, cut costs, increase innovation, and improve product quality.